Caravaggio (1571–1610) was an Italian painter, whose paintings combined realism with a dramatic use of lighting. His work had a formative influence on Baroque painting. Caravaggio employed close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro, known as tenebrism. Caravaggio vividly expressed crucial moments and scenes, often featuring violent struggles, torture and death. His influenced the work of many artists, including Peter Paul Rubens, and Rembrandt.